I have written about this before, but in light of the shootings in Paris, I thought it worthwhile to go over the history of the Christian church’s acceptance of holy images of Christ, Mary, the Apostles, etc. It was the second council of Nicaea, held in 787, that reversed the ban on graven images set in 754 by Constantine V. It took some doing as the first attempt to rescind the ban in 784 was interrupted by the arrival of troops. The second attempt, engineered by the capable Empress Irene of Byzantium, was successful.
The icon business obviously flourished with the ruling and its long term impact is irrefutable as the interiors of many Catholic and Orthodox churches attest to. It is a tad spurious to relate these images to those of a satirical cartoonist except that the ban on reproducing the Prophet’s image applies to all images, not just those taken in vain. Islam, however, according to the scholar, Christiane Gruber, states in the online magazine,“Newsweek”, that there has never been, until recently, a prohibition on creating an image of the Prophet.
It is interesting to me that, without the Empress Irene’s fervor, Christianity might have been just as obdurate against portrayals of the Holy Family as Islam is today. The reason(s) behind her fervor remain a mystery, at least to me. I can’t imagine that Christianity would have evolved the way it has without artistic license. Indeed, western culture might have been quite drastically different without the Nicaean Council’s ruling. We certainly owe her gratitude for what eventually became the western artistic canon. Whether Christianity is better for her persistence is, I believe, debatable.